Introduction to Life Coaching

Introduction

Life Coaching is a field that has been expanding since the 1970s with the growth of the Human Potential Movement. Life Coaching is “partnering with clients in a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires them to maximize their personal and professional potential” (International Coach Federation, n.d.)

Life coaching is frequently performed by counsellors and therapists but also by trained paraprofessionals. Although Life Coaching is an unregulated field there is accreditation through organizations like the International Coach Federation (ICF) or the International Association of Coaching (IAC).

Life Coaching vs Counselling/Psychotherapy

Life Coaching is often confused with counselling or psychotherapy. As coaching is unregulated and counselling/therapy are, coaches must proceed carefully to ensure their work does not cross over into the regulated activities of counselling or therapy with clients.

Life coaching focuses on achieving specific, concrete changes in someone’s life that are skill-based. Counselling and therapy are based around the idea of achieving normalcy or recovery from a mental health issue, while coaching clients are seeking superior performance. (Nelson-Jones, 2007)

Goals of Life Coaching

The goals of life coaching are as varied as the goals of psychotherapy clients or any other situation. For example, mid-career executives seek out life coaching to help make them better public speakers. Some will get a Life Coach to help them achieve their educational goals. Basically any part of your life (academic/educational, relationships, money, career, or others) can be fertile ground for life coaching.

When you see a Life Coach, you will participate in an assessment process to help you better understand your goals.

Life Coaching Model

Life coaching books, like counselling books, teach phase models of intervention to help you structure your contact. The Nelson-Jones (2007) Model is a four-stage, several phase model

Stage 1: Relating

Phase 1 – Starting the Initial Session

The goal in the relating stage is to build a strong working relationship, and to identify what the client wants out of coaching. The first session is the opening conversation: why is the client here?

Phase 2 – Facilitating Client Disclosure

Open-ended questions and strong empathy and rapport-building will help facilitate client disclosure. This will help the coach get a sense of the client’s resources (strengths) and weaknesses, in order to make a plan.

Stage 2: Understanding

Phase 1 – Reconnaissance, Detecting and Deciding

This involves exploring the client’s issues, to understand where the root of the problems is. Skilled questioning, reflecting back at the client what they are saying and probing to find out how they really want their life to be different is key here. The Miracle Question can be useful here: if you woke up tomorrow, and all your problems were solved (but you didn’t know they were solved), how would you know? What would be different?

Phase 2 – Agreeing on a Shared Analysis of How to Achieve the Client’s Life Goals

In this phase, you have a shared understanding of what the causes of the client’s problems are, and you’ve developed goals together to fix their problems. Then you’ll move into the intervention stages.

Stage 3: Changing

Phase 1 – Intervening

In the Changing Stage, the clients will implement the plans you’ve developed together. For example, your client may begin a journal and using a planner to improve their organizational skills, or may start taking classes in college to improve their education. The client may complete “homework” between sessions or do other work to help them stay on track, while the coach keeps track of their progress towards their goals.

Phase 2 – Ending

In the Ending phase, the formal coaching wraps up. The client and coach look together at the progress they’ve made and begin the process of tying up loose ends.

Stage 4: Client Self-Coaching

Phase 1 – Maintenance and Improvement

The Maintenance part of Maintenance and Improvement involves the client and coach making plans for the future and discussing what the client will need to do in order to maintain the improvement they’ve made.

Phase 2 – Self-directed Growth

The final phase of the model involves the client taking the progress they’ve made until now, and without the need of the coach, continuing to develop themselves.

Conclusion

This is a very brief introduction into a field in which many books and other resources have been written. Do you have anything to add? Write in the comments.

References

International Coach Federation. (n.d.) “Coaching FAQs – Need Coaching – ICF”. Retrieved on June 14, 2017 from https://www.coachfederation.org/need/landing.cfm?ItemNumber=978&navItemNumber=567

Nelson-Jones, R. (2007) Life Coaching Skills: How to Develop Skilled Clients. SAGE Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Cite this article as: MacDonald, D.K., (2018), "Introduction to Life Coaching," retrieved on May 27, 2019 from http://dustinkmacdonald.com/introduction-life-coaching/.
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Golan Model of Crisis Intervention

Introduction

Naomi Golan is the creator of the Golan Model of Crisis Intervention, and a pioneer of crisis theory and crisis intervention. She is Professor Emeritus at the University of Haifa in Israel, where she retired in 1984. (Dorfman, 2013)

Golan’s 1978 book Treatment in Crisis Situations provided a review of her three phase model of crisis intervention. While this work has been integrated into the work of modern day crisis intervention and even regular social work practice it was quite innovative in its day.

Golan Model of Crisis

The model that Golan proposes involves three stages or phases, and is designed to be completed in 5-6 sessions. The three phases are Assessment, Implementation and Termination. These are reviewed in more detail below.

Assessment

The assessment stage happens in the first session. The goals of the assessment stage are very similar to Boiling Down the Problem in the ABC Model and the Step 1 (Defining the Problem) in the Six Step Model of Crisis Intervention.

First, you must identify what the traumatic event or precipitating event that caused the crisis. Second, you must understand the client’s reaction or response to crisis. Third, what context did the crisis event happen in – what else is going on in the client’s life? The term “hazardous event” is sometimes used to describe the nature of the stressor. Fourth, you must identify how the client has been affected by the crisis, and finally what is the client’s primary concern as a result of the crisis?

Golan (1969) identifies four elements that can be used to determine if a client is in crisis:

  • a hazardous event
  • a vulnerable state
  • a precipitating factor
  • a state of active crisis or disequilibrium

A comprehensive assessment will be the road-map you rely on to ensure you have accurately understood the nature of the client’s crisis.

Implementation

Once you have identified the goals for treatment (collaboratively with the client), you will proceed to the Implementation phase. During implementation, you will collect information on the client’s pre-crisis functioning, coping strategies, strengths and weaknesses, and support systems available to them.

Once you have this information, you can begin to set some concrete goals with the client. For example, a recently divorced client who is completely overwhelmed with what to do next might set a goal to make an appointment with a career counsellor or resume writing service – or even something as simple as a checklist to ensure they shower and brush their teeth each morning.

The Implementation stage will run from the first session to approximately the fourth session.

Termination

Termination is the final sessions, which might be the 5th or 6th session. Now that the client has made some steps towards regaining pre-crisis functioning, the client and therapist make a plan to wrap up services and make plans for the future.

Similarities and Differences with Other Crisis Intervention Models

ABC Model

The ABC Model includes three stages:

  1. Achieving Rapport
  2. Boiling Down the Problem
  3. Contracting for Action

Similarities

Boiling Down the Problem most of the elements in the Implementation Phase, including understanding the elements that are leading the client to their crisis, and getting a detailed understanding of their coping strategies. The focus in the Termination model is very similar to the Contracting for Action part of the ABC Model.

Differences

The ABC Model includes achieving rapport as an explicit element, while the Golan Model does not, this is just expected. Additionally, the Termination phase in the Golan Model covers next steps after the client wraps up therapy, while the ABC Model may lead into regular counselling or therapy, without necessarily stopping therapy.

Six Step Model of Crisis Intervention

The Six Step Model of Crisis Intervention includes six steps:

  1. Defining the Problem
  2. Ensuring Client Safety
  3. Providing Support
  4. Examining Alternatives
  5. Making Plans
  6. Obtaining Commitment

Similarities

Both the Six Step Model and the Golan Model of Crisis Intervention include defining the nature of the problem, understanding their supports and existing resources, making goals or plans, and a termination or wrap up phase.

Differences

The Six Step Model includes more specific phases than the Golan Model. For example, Ensuring Client Safety (meeting their basic needs like shelter and food) and Providing Support (accepting the client as a person of value and worth) are absent from the Golan Model. On the other hand, the Golan Model includes assessing pre-crisis functioning in a way that the Six Step Model does not.

Finally, the Golan Model includes a more thorough Termination phase, while the Six Step Model’s Termination phase (“Obtaining Commitment”) is more about obtaining verbal agreement about next steps.

LAPC Model

The LAPC Model includes four steps:

  1. Listen
  2. Assess
  3. Plan
  4. Commit

Similarities

The LAPC Model’s Assess Phase is very similar to the Assessment Phase in the Golan Model, while the Plan Phase is very similar to the Implementation Phase. Finally, the Commit phase includes elements similar to those in the Termination phase of the Golan Model.

Differences

The main difference is that the LAPC Model includes a step involving Listening, while the Golan Model does not. Additionally, the LAPC Model includes safety planning and taking care of basic needs, things that were less of a concern to Golan – who was frequently taking care of clients in a hospital setting where this was already assumed.

Conclusion

As you can see, many crisis intervention models are overlapping and interrelated. The Golan Model of Crisis Intervention is a useful model of crisis intervention, and has several important similarities and differences when compared with other models like the Six Step Model, the ABC Model, and the LAPC Model.

References

Golan, N. (1969) When is a client in crisis?. Social Case Work. 50(7). pp. 389-394.

Golan, N. (1978) Treatment in Crisis Situations. New York, NY: Free Press.

Dorfman, R.A. (2013) Clinical Social WorkDefinition, Practice And Vision. London, England: Routledge.

Cite this article as: MacDonald, D.K., (2018), "Golan Model of Crisis Intervention," retrieved on May 27, 2019 from http://dustinkmacdonald.com/golan-model-crisis-intervention/.
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Biopsychosocial Model of Suicidal Behaviour

Introduction

There are a variety of models of suicidal behaviour. These models attempt to map suicidal behaviour or put it into boxes so that a helping professional can better understand how suicidal behaviour forms and how it can be treated and resolved. This Biopsychosocial Model comes from Kumar, U. & Mandal, M.K. (2010).

The model is first presented in textual format, followed by an image, and then an explanation.

Biopsychosocial Model

Biological, Environmental and Event factors feed into a Psychological Process. This psychological process leads to the development or exacerbation of a mental health issue and to suicidal behaviour. On a cognitive level, this affects how the individual thinks and feels about the past, present and future.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biological Influences in Suicide

There are a number of biological factors that can increase the risk of suicide which have been reviewed by Pandey (2013). These include genetic predisposition of suicidal behaviour (Turecki, 2001) which may be related to increased prevalence of impulsiveness and aggressiveness.

5HT receptors are receptors in the brain that are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin plays an important role in mood (Yohn, Guerges & Samuels, 2017), appetite and eating (Sharma & Sharma, 2012), sleep, memory and sexual function. Improperly functioning 5HT receptors may play a role both in depression and in suicidal behavior.

It has been well-documented that teens and adolescents are more impulsive than adults as their brains continue to develop up to age 25 (Kasen, Cohen & Chen, 2011) and this can increase their risk of suicide and homicide. (Glick, 2015) Witt et. al. (2008) examines this through the lens of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide – suggesting that impulsive individuals are more likely to have acquired capability (through being exposed to pain), which is one of the 3 key elements of that Theory of Suicide.

Environmental Influences in Suicide

Environmental influences on suicidal behaviour include literal environmental factors like sunlight exposure and situational factors like presence of abuse, history of suicide attempts and other items that are commonly known as suicide risk factors.

Souêtre et. al. (1990) found that decreased sunlight exposure and lowered temperature was linked to increased risk of suicide. This may explain the high rate of suicide in Nordic and Scandinavian countries that lack many of the other risk factors for suicide. Lam et. al. (1999) found that light therapy decreased suicidal ideation in a population of women who struggled with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).

Evans, Owens & Marsh (2005) found that an external locus of control (believing that life “happens to one” rather than one having control over their life) was associated with an increased risk of suicide in adolescents. This likely holds true in adults as well.

Other risk factors for suicide include the American Association of Suicidology’s IS PATH WARM mnemonic:

  • Ideation (thoughts of suicide)
  • Substance Abuse
  • Purposelessness
  • Anxiety
  • Trapped (a feeling of being trapped)
  • Hopelessness
  • Withdrawal (from others)
  • Anger
  • Recklessness
  • Mood Changes

Event Influences in Suicide

Sometimes an event occurs in someone’s life that is so devastating that it may lead to suicide. For instance, relational changes and other interpersonal issues (such as a loss of a relationship or fights with a friend) commonly precede a suicide attempt (Yen et. al., 2005; Bagge, Glenn & Lee, 2013; Conner, et. al., 2012)

In addition to interpersonal events as described above, events that may lead to suicidal behaviour include being arrested, charged or sentenced with a crime (Cooper, Appleby & Amos, 2002). Zhang & Ma (2012) also found this in a Chinese sample of suicide attempters, with the most common stressful life events preceding suicide involving family/home, hospital/health and marriage/love.

Conclusion

It’s clear that the biopsychosocial model of suicide has a fair amount of support for its component parts. It may be difficult to apply the Biopsychosocial Model directly in a clinical or therapeutic context. For that reason, other models may be preferred for intervention purposes.

References

Bagge, C. L., Glenn, C. R., & Lee, H. (2013). Quantifying the impact of recent negative life events on suicide attempts. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology122(2), 359-368. doi:10.1037/a0030371

Conner, K. R., Houston, R. J., Swogger, M. T., Conwell, Y., You, S., He, H., & … Duberstein, P. R. (2012). Stressful life events and suicidal behavior in adults with alcohol use disorders: Role of event severity, timing, and type. Drug & Alcohol Dependence120(1-3), 155-161. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.07.013

Cooper, J., Appleby, L., & Amos, T. (2002). Life events preceding suicide by young people. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology37(6), 271.

Evans, W. P., Owens, P., & Marsh, S. C. (2005). Environmental Factors, Locus of Control, and Adolescent Suicide Risk. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal22(3/4), 301-319. doi:10.1007/s10560-005-0013-x

Glick, A. R. (2015). The role of serotonin in impulsive aggression, suicide, and homicide in adolescents and adults: a literature review. International Journal Of Adolescent Medicine And Health, (2), 143. doi:10.1515/ijamh-2015-5005

Kasen, S., Cohen, P., & Chen, H. (2011). Developmental course of impulsivity and capability from age 10 to age 25 as related to trajectory of suicide attempt in a community cohort. Suicide And Life-Threatening Behavior, (2), 180.

Kumar, U & Mandal, M.K. (2010). Suicidal Behavior: Assessment of People-at-Risk. New Delhi, India: SAGE Publications.

Lam, R. W., Carter, D., Misri, S., Kuan, A. J., Yatham, L. N., & Zis, A. P. (1999). A controlled study of light therapy in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. Psychiatry Research86185-192. doi:10.1016/S0165-1781(99)00043-8

Pandey, G. N. (2013). Biological basis of suicide and suicidal behavior. Bipolar Disorders15(5), 524-541. doi:10.1111/bdi.12089

Sharma, S., & Sharma, J. (2012). Regulation of Appetite: Role of Serotonin and Hypothalamus. Iranian Journal Of Pharmacology & Therapeutics11(2), 73-79.

Souêtre, E., Wehr, T.A., Douillet, P. & Darcourt, G. (1990) Influence of environmental factors on suicidal behavior. Psychiatry Research. 32(3):253-63.

Turecki, G. (2001). Suicidal behavior: is there a genetic predisposition?. Bipolar Disorders3(6), 335-349.

Witte, T. K., Merrill, K. A., Stellrecht, N. E., Bernert, R. A., Hollar, D. L., Schatschneider, C., & Joiner, J. E. (2008). Research report: “Impulsive” youth suicide attempters are not necessarily all that impulsive. Journal Of Affective Disorders107107-116. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2007.08.010

Yen, S., Pagano, M. E., Shea, M. T., Grilo, C. M., Gunderson, J. G., Skodol, A. E., & … Zanarini, M. C. (2005). Recent Life Events Preceding Suicide Attempts in a Personality Disorder Sample: Findings From the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology73(1), 99-105. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.1.99

Yohn, C. N., Gergues, M. M., & Samuels, B. A. (2017). The role of 5-HT receptors in depression. Molecular Brain101-12. doi:10.1186/s13041-017-0306-y

Zhang, J., & Ma, Z. (2012). Research report: Patterns of life events preceding the suicide in rural young Chinese: A case control study. Journal Of Affective Disorders140161-167. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.01.010

Cite this article as: MacDonald, D.K., (2017), "Biopsychosocial Model of Suicidal Behaviour," retrieved on May 27, 2019 from http://dustinkmacdonald.com/biopsychosocial-model-suicidal-behaviour/.
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SIMPLE STEPS Model for Suicide Risk Assessment

Introduction

The SIMPLE STEPS Model (McGlothlin, 2008) for suicide risk assessment provides a simple mnemonic similar to others like SADPERSONS (Patterson, et. al., 1983) or IS PATH WARM (from the American Association of Suicidology). Each of these is correlated with increasing suicide lethality and so this can be a useful short-hand to remember these items.

Suicide risk assessment on the crisis line is mostly concerned with imminent risk, and many suicide screeners designed for lay people may miss important variables in a goal to be simplistic; the SIMPLE STEPS model appears to avoid both of these traps, by providing an assessment tool simple enough to be used in the crisis line environment but comprehensive enough to be used by counsellors or therapists for ongoing monitoring of suicide risk.

Items in the SIMPLE STEPS Model

  • Suicidal – Is the individual expressing suicidal ideation?
  • Ideation – What is their suicidal intent?
  • Method – How detailed and accessible is their suicidal method?
  • Perturbation – How strong is their emotional pain
  • Loss – Have they experienced actual or perceived losses? (Relationships, material objects)
  • Earlier Attempts – What previous attempts has the individual experienced, what happened after those attempts?
  • Substance Use – Is the individual abusing drugs, alcohol, or other substances?
  • (Lack of) Troubleshooting Skills – Are they able to see alternatives or options other than suicide?
  • Emotions / Diagnosis – “Assessment of emotional attributes (hopelessness, helplessness, worthlessness, loneliness, agitation, depression, and impulsivity) and diagnoses commonly associated with completed suicide (e.g., substance abuse, mood disorders, personality disorders, etc.)” (McGlothlin, et. al., 2016)
  • (Lack of) Protective Factors – What is keeping this person safe from suicide? Who are their supports (internal such as personal values and external like people), resources and agencies
  • Stressors and Life Events – What has happened in their life to lead them to suicide?

Sharp readers will identify that these elements map very neatly onto the DCIB Model of Suicide Risk Assessment, but perhaps provide a better mnemonic in order to make sure that clinicians who do not have the DCIB in front of them are able to perform that assessment.

Validation of the SIMPLE STEPS Model

McGlothlin, et. al. (2016) used 13,000 calls over six years to a crisis line and correlated the SIMPLE STEPS items with the lethality risk present in that call. One limitation of this study is that it used self-reported (by the helpline worker taking the call) lethality rather than using another evidence-based risk assessment in order to compare with. I am satisfied that McGlothlin addressed this in his limitations section, where he noted the difficulty with using data collected in this manner.

References

McGlothlin, J. (2008). Developing clinical skills in suicide assessment, prevention and treatment.
Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association

McGlothlin, J., Page, B., & Jager, K. (2016). Validation of the SIMPLE STEPS Model of Suicide Assessment. Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 38(4), 298-307. doi:10.17744/mehc.38.4.02

Patterson, W.M., Dohn, H.H., Patterson, J. & Patterson, G.A. (1983). “Evaluation of suicidal patients: the SAD PERSONS scale.” Psychosomatics 24(4): 343–5, 348–9. doi:10.1016/S0033-3182(83)73213-5. PMID 6867245

Cite this article as: MacDonald, D.K., (2017), "SIMPLE STEPS Model for Suicide Risk Assessment," retrieved on May 27, 2019 from http://dustinkmacdonald.com/simple-steps-model-suicide-risk-assessment/.

 

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Childhood and Adolescent Taxon Scale (CATS)

Introduction

The Childhood and Adolescent Taxon Scale (CATS) worksheet was originally created to accompany the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG). Although the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) can be used to assess psychopathy, there are many situations where a Psychologist or other individual trained in the administration of this tool is not available. In this situation, the CATS tool can be used to assess psychopathy instead.

Quinsey et. al. (2006) determined that the CATS tool is an appropriate replacement for the PCL-R assessment when determining psychopathy on the VRAG and SORAG assessments. Lister (2010) examined the CATS and found that there were no differences in rates of psychopathy as determined by the PCL-R and the CATS with Caucasian and African-American individuals.

Conduct Disorder Symptoms

In order to answer question 4 below, it’s necessary to identify how many conduct disorder symptoms are present.

Count those present those that occurred before age 16 except for items 13 and 15 which are before aged 16:

  1. Often bullied, threatened or intimidated others
  2. Often initiated physical fights
  3. Used a weapon that could cause serious physical harm to others (e.g., a bat, brick, broken bottle, knife, gun)
  4. Was physically cruel to people
  5. Was physically cruel to animals
  6. Stolen while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging, purse snatching, extortion, robbery)
  7. Forced someone into sexual activity
  8. Deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious damage
  9. Deliberately destroyed others’ property (other than by fire setting)
  10. Broken into someone else’s house, car, or building
  11. Often lied to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (i.e., “cons” others)
  12. Stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (like shoplifting, theft, or forgery)
  13. Before [age] 13, stayed out late at night, despite parental prohibitions
  14. Ran away from home overnight (or longer) at least twice while living in parental or parental surrogate home (or once without returning for a lengthy period)
  15. Before [age] 13, was often truant from school

Childhood & Adolescent Taxon Scale (CATS) Items

The CATS scale has 8 items that are reviewed below, along with supplementary scoring guidelines.

Elementary School Maladjustment

This refers to the first 8 years of formal schooling after kindgarten. A couple of incidents of truancy, smoking on school property or other minor incidents like this would be classified as Mild or Moderate. Severe incidents include repeated truancy or violent actions like assault. Also included in Severe is actions that result in criminal convictions like selling drugs at school.

  • 0 – No Problems
  • 0 – Slight (Minor discipline or attendance) or Moderate Problems
  • 1 – Severe Problems (Frequent disruptive behavior and/or attendance or behavior resulting in expulsion or serious suspensions)

Teenage Alcohol Problem

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism produces a guide to screening and intervening with youth (NIAAA, 2015) who consume alcohol. Their screening and assessment rubric can be used to determine if there is a teenage alcohol problem.

Based on the empirically determined risk guidelines, someone who is 12-15 and drinks more than 6 days in the past year would indicate a 1 below, someone who is 16 and drinks more than 12 days in the last year, someone who is 17 would need to drink more than 24 days while an individual who is 18 or higher would need to drink more than 52 days a year.

  • 0 – No
  • 1 – Yes

Childhood Aggression Rating

  • 0 – No Evidence of Aggression
  • 0 – Occasional Moderate Aggression
  • 1 – Occasional or Frequent Extreme Aggression

More Than 3 DSM Conduct Disorder Symptoms

These are the conduct disorder symptoms filled out below.

  • 0 – No
  • 1 – Yes

Ever suspended or expelled from school

  • 0 – No
  • 1 – Yes

Arrested under the age of 16

  • 0 – No
  • 1 – Yes

Lived with both biological parents to age 16 (except for death of parents)

Separation for more than one month is required for coding a “no” on this item. This could be because of institutionalization, divorce, or other separations but does not include death of one or both parents.

  • 0 – Yes
  • 1 – No

Scoring the CATS

Each of these items will result in a 0 or 1 score. All items are summed and the value can then be used to complete Item 12.b on the VRAG or item 14b on the SORAG.

References

American Psychological Association. (2006) Quinsey, V.L., Harris, G.T., Rice, M.E. & Cormier, C.A. (2006) 2nd Ed. Violent Offenders: Appraising and Managing Risk. Washington D.C: American Psychological Association.

Hare, R.D. (1991) The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare PCL-R). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.

Lister, M.B. (2010) A Comparison of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide, Psychopathy Checklist, and child and Adolescent Taxon Scale: Predictive Utility And Cross Cultural Generalizable. Dissertation.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (2015). Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth: A Practitioner’s Guide. Retrieved on January 28, 2017 from https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Practitioner/YouthGuide/YouthGuide.pdf

Cite this article as: MacDonald, D.K., (2017), "Childhood and Adolescent Taxon Scale (CATS)," retrieved on May 27, 2019 from http://dustinkmacdonald.com/childhood-adolescent-taxon-scale-cats/.
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